Assessing Child Labor in West Africa Cocoa Farming
Efforts to reduce child labor in cocoa farming required a better understanding of the problem.
According to estimates, millions of children — as young as five years old and often in hazardous conditions — worked in cocoa production in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, the world’s biggest sources of cocoa. More in-depth research and data were needed to determine the prevalence of child labor in this sector and which children were at the greatest risk. In addition, policymakers needed to better understand what social and economic factors were pushing children into this work and what efforts, principally by governments, would most effectively reduce their numbers.
NORC conducted the most ambitious in-person surveys ever in cocoa country.
Over the 2018-19 harvest season, NORC deployed researchers to conduct thousands of face-to-face interviews with representative individuals throughout cocoa-growing areas in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. Governments and members of the multinational cocoa and chocolate industry worked cooperatively with our teams. In the end, we gave questionnaires to 2,809 household heads and 5,552 children, and administered hundreds of group surveys at schools and other locations. The unprecedented depth of our research allowed us to conclude that in farm families in cocoa country, more than a third of children in Côte d’Ivoire and just over half in Ghana worked in cocoa cultivation. Almost everyone was engaged in dangerous tasks.
Our study informed global pressure and industry pledges to end child labor in cocoa farming.
In October 2020, NORC issued a report that generated global media attention. The findings prompted the World Cocoa Foundation, whose members include major chocolate and cocoa companies like Nestle and Cargill, to pledge to eliminate child labor. Their action plan includes partnering with the governments of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana to diversify rural economies, raise farm pay, increase school funding, and enforce employment laws. “Child labor has no place in the cocoa supply chain,” the World Cocoa Foundation wrote in a forward to our report. Based on our research, coordinated interventions are effective in keeping children away from cocoa farming.
Departments, Centers & Programs
Kareem KysiaProgram Area DirectorProject Director
Santadarshan SadhuPrincipal Research ScientistPrincipal Investigator
Clifford ZinnesSenior FellowSenior Staff
Alexandre MonnardSenior Research ScientistSenior Staff
This Project in the News
World Cocoa Foundation