General Social Survey (GSS)

Since 1972, the General Social Survey (GSS) has been monitoring societal change and studying the growing complexity of American society.

The GSS aims to gather data on contemporary American society in order to monitor and explain trends and constants in attitudes, behaviors, and attributes; to examine the structure and functioning of society in general as well as the role played by relevant subgroups; to compare the United States to other societies in order to place American society in comparative perspective and develop cross-national models of human society; and to make high-quality data easily accessible to scholars, students, policy makers, and others, with minimal cost and waiting.

GSS questions include such items as national spending priorities, marijuana use, crime and punishment, race relations, quality of life, and confidence in institutions. Since 1988, the GSS has also collected data on sexual behavior including number of sex partners, frequency of intercourse, extramarital relationships, and sex with prostitutes.

Other researchers are invited to participate in the GSS. The 2018 GSS includes modules on science, discrimination, attitudes regarding abortions, pets, quality of working life, self-assessments of physical and psychological health, attitudes toward people with mental health problems, the role of the natural environment in people’s lives, religion, social networks and social resources.

The GSS is NORC’s longest running project, and one of its most influential. Except for U.S. Census data, the GSS is the most frequently analyzed source of information in the social sciences. GSS data are used in numerous newspaper, magazine, and journal articles, by legislators, policy makers, and educators. The GSS is also a major teaching tool in colleges and universities: more than 27,000 journal articles, books and Ph.D. dissertations are based on the GSS; and about 400,000 students use the GSS in their classes each year.

In 1985 the GSS co-founded the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The ISSP has conducted an annual cross-national survey each year since then and has involved 60 countries and interviewed over one million respondents. The ISSP asks an identical battery of questions in all countries; the U.S. version of these questions is incorporated into the GSS. 2018 ISSP topics include religion and a new cross-national study on social networks and social resources.


Data from the 2018 General Social Survey (GSS) are now available.

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GSS Data Explorer Key Trends

Quickly visualize trends and compare user response over time with the GSS Data Explorer.

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Infographics and Visualizations


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