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Criminal Justice

A fair and effective justice system is part of the foundation of a successful society, affecting every American citizen, every day. Concerns about the enormous costs of the system exist alongside deep uncertainty about the efficacy of law enforcement and correctional strategies, and whether and how reform efforts can impact rehabilitation and improve public safety.

NORC’s 1966 landmark study, Criminal Victimization in the United States, was the predecessor to the annual National Crime Victimization Survey now conducted by the U.S. Census. Since then, NORC has consistently taken a comprehensive look at the justice system, examining the perspectives of its primary participants: institutions that oversee the administration of justice; crime victims and their experiences; those who commit crime; and the public that develops perceptions about crime and punishment.

In many cases, NORC’s work has explored instances where victimization occurs outside the criminal justice system. For example, studies on sexual behavior and human trafficking uncovered new types of victimization not often reported to police or addressed within the system. NORC launched a rigorous longitudinal study of middle school dating violence curriculum—a prevention-oriented extension of our expertise on victims. NORC has also surveyed prosecutors’ offices, prison re-entry programs, and a host of substance abuse and mental health issues with implications for the criminal justice system. The 2011 study, Dynamics of Methamphetamine Markets, exemplifies an interdisciplinary approach to problems where substance abuse and criminal activity are closely intertwined.  This innovative study was one of the first to consider all local stakeholders—dealers and users, as well as police and community leaders. It meshed interactive Internet-based tools with Drug Enforcement Agency file data to create a detailed, street-level understanding of the epidemic.

These innovations, our expertise with data collection in law enforcement agencies, and a sensitivity to incarcerated or victimized subjects enhances NORC’s core capabilities to develop new knowledge about the functions of the criminal justice system.
 
Specific areas of expertise include:
 

Representative Projects

2010 National Survey of Prosecutors.

Since 1990, the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) has periodically sponsored the National Survey of Prosecutors (NSP) to collect data on the resources, policies, and practices of local chief prosecutors in state court systems. The information collected covers staffing and operations, innovative prosecution techniques, felony and misdemeanor caseloads, prosecution of computer-related crimes, juvenile offenses, and use of DNA evidence. More

Conversion of Criminal History Records into Research Databases (CCHRRD). For years, BJS has used information stored in the nation’s automated criminal history records to assess the officially-recognized, law-violating behavior of various samples of individuals.  To do recidivism studies, BJS has provided state criminal history repositories with identifying information on study subjects and has requested each participating state repository to extract selected information on each subject’s criminal justice activities, thus creating a reporting burden for participating repositories. In addition, the structure and content of the data extracted from these repositories varies from state to state requiring customized software to transform each state’s data into a commonly-formatted, researchable database.  In light of these challenges, only two national recidivism studies of released prisoners have been performed by BJS to date; the first in 1983 and the latest in 1994.  More

Dynamics of Methamphetamine Markets. The focus of the study is on understanding the organization, operation, and impact of different forms and combinations of meth markets in different communities.  More

National Former Prisoner Survey.

The National Former Prisoner Survey (FPS) is one of a series of major studies undertaken by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, in response to congressional mandates in the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003. The National Former Prisoner Survey was conducted by NORC in 2008 and was designed to provide national estimates of sexual violence within prisons. More

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1997. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor, is the youth-focused component of the National Longitudinal Survey Program used to gather information on the labor market experiences of American men and women.  More

See all Criminal Justice projects

Headlines

News The Huffington Post: Asking how safe Americans feels, with NORC research and surveys More
Posted: 4.22.2014 4:25PM
News The Wall Street Journal: Judicial sentencing in political years, with observations made possible by the GSS More
Posted: 8.17.2012 4:24PM
News The Wall Street Journal: NLSY97 cited in determining the links between obesity and behavior More
Posted: 2.22.2012 4:42PM
Event Teen Dating Violence Intervention & Prevention, , Wednesday, February 29, 2012 More
Posted: 2.13.2012 1:38PM
News Reuters: "Fuzzy numbers on guns" with data and research from NORC More
Posted: 2.7.2012 2:46PM

Contacts

Eric Goplerud

(301) 634-9525

Jeffrey Hackett

(312) 759-4266