The health of older adults is influenced by many factors. One of the least understood is the role that social support and personal relationships play in health and aging. The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) is a longitudinal, population-based study of health and social factors, aiming to understand the well-being of older, community-dwelling Americans by examining the interactions among physical health and illness, medication use, cognitive function, emotional health, sensory function, health behaviors, social connectedness, sexuality, and relationship quality. NSHAP provides policy makers, health providers, and individuals with useful information and insights into these factors, particularly on social and intimate relationships. The study contributes to finding new ways to improve health as people age.
To date there are three waves of NSHAP data available to researchers, and funding has now been awarded for a third wave of data collection. In 2005 and 2006, NORC and Principal Investigators at the University of Chicago conducted the first wave of NSHAP, completing more than 3,000 interviews with a nationally representative sample of adults born between 1920 and 1947 (aged 57 to 85 at the time of Wave 1 interview). In 2010 and 2011, nearly 3,400 interviews were completed for Wave 2 with these Wave 1 Respondents, Wave 1 Non-Interviewed Respondents, and their spouses or cohabiting romantic partners. NSHAP is currently conducting interviews for Wave 3 with plans to complete more than 4,600 includes 4,777 interviews. In the third wave of data collection, we are interviewing respondents who participated in a previous wave(s) were reinterviewed which will improve the robustness of the study’s longitudinal data by adding a third time point. In addition, we are interviewed a new cohort of adults born between 1948 and 1965 and their spouses or cohabiting romantic partners to allow us to examine changes in trajectories of health across birth cohorts. Combined, the three waves will allow for descriptions of health, and health transitions of respondents, and how they relate to different kinds of social relationships in respondents’ lives. The second wave of NSHAP is essential to understanding how social and biological characteristics change. By eliciting a variety of information from respondents over time, NSHAP provides data that will allow researchers in a number of fields to examine how specific factors may or may not affect each other across the life course.
NSHAP is currently conducting interviews for Wave 3 with plans to complete more than 4,600 interviews. In the third wave of data collection, we are interviewing respondents who participated in a previous wave(s) which will improve the robustness of the study’s longitudinal data by adding a third time point. In addition, we are interviewing a new cohort of adults born between 1948 and 1965 and their spouses or cohabiting romantic partners to allow us to examine changes in trajectories of health across birth cohorts. As in Waves 1 and 2, Wave 3 will describe health and health transitions of respondents, and how they relate to different kinds of social relationships in respondents’ lives.
For all waves, data collection includes three measurements: in-home interviews, biomeasures, and leave-behind respondent-administered questionnaires. The face-to-face interviews and biomeasure collection take place in respondents' homes.
NSHAP Wave 1 uses a national area probability sample of community residing adults born between 1920 and 1947 (aged 57 to 85 at the time of the Wave 1 interview), which includes an oversampling of African-Americans and Hispanics. The NSHAP sample is built on the foundation of the national household screening carried out by the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in 2004. Through a collaborative agreement, HRS identified households for the NSHAP eligible population. A sample of 4,400 people was selected from the screened households. NSHAP made one selection per household. Ninety-two percent of the persons selected for the NSHAP interview were eligible.
For Wave 2 in 2010 and 2011, NSHAP returned to Wave 1 Respondents and eligible non-interviewed respondents from Wave 1 (Wave 1 Non-Interviewed Respondents). NSHAP also extended the Wave 2 sample to include the cohabiting spouses and romantic partners of Wave 1 Respondents and Wave 1 Non-Interviewed Respondents. Partners were considered to be eligible to participate in NSHAP if they resided in the household with the Wave 1 Respondent/Wave 1 Non-Interviewed Respondent at the time of the Wave 2 interview and were at least 18 years of age.
In 2015-16, NSHAP Wave 3 re-interviewed Wave 2 respondents as well as available Wave 1 respondents who did not participate in Wave 2. During the same field period, data were collected from a new cohort of community residing adults (born between 1948 and 1965) to refresh the NSHAP sample.
3,005 completed interviews conducted between July, 2005 and March, 2006.
3,377 completed interviews conducted between August, 2010 and May, 2011, including 2,261 Wave 1 Respondent interviews, 161 Wave 1 Non-Interviewed Respondent interviews, 907 Wave 1 Respondent Partner interviews, and 48 Wave 1 Non-Interviewed Respondent Partner interviews.
An estimated 4,600 interviews will be conducted between September, 2015 and September 2016. These will include approximately 2,350 Referent Respondents and 2,250 New Cohort Respondents.
Overall weighted response rate of 75.5 percent
The overall unconditional response rate for the Wave 2 panel was 74%; the conditional response rate of Wave 1 respondents was 89%; the conditional response rate of partners was 84%; and the conversion rate for Wave 1 nonrespondents was 26%.
4,777 completed interviews between September 2015 and Nov 2016. These include cohort 1 and cohort 2 Respondent and Respondent Partners
Data Collection Method
NSHAP data collection for all waves consists of three distinct components:
- In-person questionnaire
- Biomeasure collection
- Supplemental self-administered questionnaire (SAQ)
In addition, Waves 2 and 3 include a supplemental proxy questionnaire for Wave 1 and 2 Respondents who were either deceased or whose health was too poor to participate in subsequent Waves.
The in-person questionnaire and biomeasures were administered by a NORC field interviewer in the respondent’s home. Questionnaire topics included: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) social networks and social network change; 3) social and cultural activity; 4) physical and mental health including cognition; 5) well-being; 6) illness; 7) healthcare utilization and medications; and 8) history of sexual and intimate partnerships. Given the longitudinal goals of NSHAP, most of the Wave 2 and 3 in-person questionnaires remained relatively unchanged from the Wave 1 instrument.
NSHAP continues to collect important health information via biomeasures. All biomeasures included in NSHAP were specifically designed to be implemented by non-medically trained interviewers. The data collection protocols were minimally invasive and safe for both interviewer and respondent. A summary of the biomeasures collected in both waves of NSHAP appears in the table linked below. In-depth information on biomeasure collection changes for Wave 2 will be found in the NSHAP Wave 2 Measurement Booklet.
For a Summary of the Biomeasure Collection and Physical Assessment across Waves 1 and 2, click
As an addition to Wave 2, select respondents were asked to participate in a multi-modal, at-home self-administered biomeasure collection called Actigraphy. Actigraphy is a minimally-invasive method used to measure sleep and activity cycles.
Supplemental Self-Administered Questionnaire
At the end of the in-person interview, respondents were given a supplemental paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Respondents were asked to complete this questionnaire and return it via U.S. mail in a provided postage-paid envelope. Approximately 84 percent of respondents in Wave 1 and approximately 87 percent of respondents in Wave 2 returned the supplemental questionnaire.
Since mortality and incapacity are themselves important health outcomes, NSHAP employed a short proxy questionnaire in Waves 2 and 3 to collect final health data for Wave 1 and 2 Respondents, respectively, who could not participate in NSHAP due to disability or death. Final health data was collected on 566 Wave 1 Respondents using the Proxy interview, and in Wave 3, final health data is being collected for Wave 2 Respondents.
Average Length of Interview
The in-person interview for Waves 1 and 2 was about 120 minutes in length and includes the in-person questionnaire and biomeasures. The supplemental SAQ took approximately 30 minutes or less to complete. The average in-person interview for Wave 3 is about 90 minutes in length.
NSHAP is dedicated to maintaining the trust of respondents and is diligent in protecting respondent confidentiality while providing data accessible to the public for research. NSHAP data made available to the public does not contain any identifiable respondent information and uses code numbers instead of names for all data. De-identified data from the Wave 1 and Wave 2 interviews are available to researchers through the National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), located within Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR).
NSHAP Wave 1
Waite, Linda J., Edward O. Laumann, Wendy Levinson, Stacy Tessler Lindau, and Colm A. O'Muircheartaigh. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP): Wave 1. ICPSR20541-v6. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2014-04-30.
NSHAP Wave 2
Waite, Linda J., Kathleen Cagney, William Dale, Elbert Huang, Edward O. Laumann, Martha McClintock, Colm A. O'Muircheartaigh, L. Phillip Schumm, and Benjamin Cornwell. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP): Wave 2 and Partner Data Collection. ICPSR34921-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2014-04-29.
NSHAP Wave 3
Waite, Linda J, Kathleen Cagney, William Dale, Louise Hawkley, Elbert Huang, Diane Lauderdale, Edward O. Laumann, Martha McClintock, Colm A. O’Muircheartaigh, and L. Phillip Schumm. National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP): Wave 3. ICPSR36873-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-10-25.